Globally, though to different extents, naturalisation remains of significant relevance to immigrants as this allows them to access rights restricted to nationals. However, not every state adopts the same rules to condition naturalisation and states with similar eligibility conditions sometimes have very different implementation practices. Focusing on residence-based naturalisation, the paper that will be presented during the seminar session takes policy differentiation seriously and aims to contribute to a comparative explanation for policy-variation in a global perspective. Going global in naturalisation policy analysis allows testing different theories explaining policy-variation in a more comprehensive manner than was the case in previous investigations, in particular theories that claim the existence of a ‘political regime effect’ in naturalisation policies or an impact of colonial legacies on the degree of inclusion of these policies. To assess the extent to which naturalisation policies vary, the paper reviews previous indices that have measured how inclusive or exclusive individual countries are, and reflects on the added value of a new, global index that would look both at the legal dimensions of naturalisation (eligibility requirements, procedural guarantees for applicants, protections against denaturalisation, etc.) and at its implementation dimensions (documentation to provide, use of discretion, levels of bureaucracy involved, etc.)
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